Home > Open-minded Research > Pioneering Investigators


Pioneering Investigators

 

Positive Skeptics



Henry Bauer, Ph.D.
Austrian by birth (1931), Australian by education (1939-56), and American (since 1969) by choice. For twenty-five years, Bauer taught chemistry and carried on research in electrochemistry (at the Universities of Sydney (Australia), Michigan, Southampton (England), and Kentucky). In the 1970s he turned to history, philosophy, and sociology of science, concerned particularly with how to differentiate science from pseudo-science. He was a founding member of the Center for the Study of Science in Society at Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University. From 1978 until 1986 he served as Dean of the College of Arts & Sciences. Upon retirement from teaching, he became Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Scientific Exploration. Bauer's present concerns include the deleterious effect on public discussions and public policy of misconceptions about how science operates, of political correctness and misguided attacks on science, and of unethical practice in science. His books include Science or Pseudoscience: Magnetic Healing, Psychic Phenomena, and Other Heterodoxies ( 2001) and Scientific Literacy and the Myth of the Scientific Method (1992).
www.henryhbauer.homestead.com

Top of Page

Dick Bierman, Ph.D.
Dick Bierman (University of Amsterdam, Utrecht University) suggests that in order to accomodate psi phenomena we might have to propose new types of realities, intermediate between the subjective but hardly deniable reality of consciousness and objective physical reality. After a PhD in experimental physics he became involved in research in Artificial Intelligence more specifically 'Intelligent' tutoring systems. This resulted in a focus on individual learning and later learning during altered states of consciousness, most notably, learning during sleep. Also the importance of affective rather than cognitive processes in individual teaching lead him to interest in non-conscious emotions and their role in (intuitive) decision making. In that context his work on pre-sentiment, the apparent anomalous activation of bodily arousal preceding emotional events, found a natural context. He is currently engaged in experiments that might clarify the relation between quantum physics and consciousness.
Website: http://a1162.fmg.uva.nl/~djb/publications/

Top of Page

William G. Braud, Ph.D.
Professor and Research Director of the Institute of Transpersonal Psychology. A researcher, writer, and educator in areas of inclusive and integrated psychology; transpersonal and spiritual studies; and consciousness studies; Braud's work studying distant mental influences on living systems established a new approach for psychokinesis research and is notable for its design originality. He also is known for his early work on states of consciousness favorable for psi. His work is reported on in a long list of technical papers and reports, and in a book, Distant Mental Influence, to be released in the spring of 2003.
www.integral-inquiry.com

Top of Page

Stephen E. Braude, Ph.D.
Stephen Braude is professor of philosophy and chairman of the philosophy department at the University of Maryland Baltimore County. After publishing a number of articles in the philosophy of language, temporal logic, and the philosophy of time, he turned his attention to several related problems in the philosophy of science and the philosophy of mind in particular, questions concerning causality, scientific explanation generally, and psychological explanation specifically. Along the way, he examined the evidence of parapsychology to see whether it would provide new insights into these and other traditional philosophical issues. After that, he shifted his focus to problems in philosophical psychopathology, writing extensively on the connections between dissociation and classic philosophical problems as well as central issues in parapsychology for example, the unity of consciousness, multiple personality and moral responsibility, and the nature of mental mediumship. He is past president of the Parapsychological Association and the recipient of several grants and fellowships, including research fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the BIAL Foundation. He has published more than fifty philosophical essays, and four books: ESP and Psychokinesis: A Philosophical Examination (2002), The Limits of Influence: Psychokinesis and the Philosophy of Science (1997), First Person Plural: Multiple Personality and the Philosophy of Mind (1995) and Immortal Remains: The Evidence for Life After Death (2003). He is also a professional pianist and composer and a prize-winning stereo photographer.
Website: http://userpages.umbc.edu/~braude
Books by Stephen E. Braude

Top of Page

Brenda J. Dunne, M.S.
Manager of the Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research (PEAR) laboratory since 1979, in which capacity she supervises the full spectrum of PEAR activities and oversees research projects of visiting scholars and student interns. Since 1986 she has been a Councilor of the Society for Scientific Exploration and currently serves on its Executive Committee as Education Officer. She is also President and Treasurer of the International Consciousness Research Laboratories (ICRL).

Top of Page

Bernard Grad, Ph.D.
Professor of Biology (emeritus) McGill University. Grad's research in healing/Therapeutic Intent beginning almost half a century ago influenced much of the subsequent research in this growing field. In a series of highly original experiments, reported on in a lengthy list of technical papers and reports, he explored the ability of healers to affect plants and to alter the structure of water.

Top of Page

Robert Jahn, Ph.D
Professor of Aerospace Sciences at Princeton University, and Dean Emeritus of the School of Engineering and Applied Science. He has directed major research programs in advanced aerospace propulsion systems for the past 40 years, with ongoing sponsorship by NASA, the Air Force, and various industrial firms. For the past 23 years, he has been Directorof the Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research (PEAR) Laboratory. He is Chairman of the Board of the International Consciousness Research Laboratories and Vice President of the Society for Scientific Exploration.
http://www.princeton.edu/~etta/vitae/Vjahn.html

Top of Page

Brian Josephson, Ph.D
Professor of Physics at Cambridge University, and winner of the 1973 Nobel Prize for physics for his work on discovering the Josephson tunnelling effect in superconductivity. He is currently director of the Mind-Matter Unification Project of the Theory of Condensed Matter Group at the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, a project concerned primarily with the attempt to understand from the viewpoint of the theoretical physicist what may loosely be characterised as intelligent processes in nature associated with brain function or with some other natural process. "From the viewpoint of the theoretical physicist" means that there is a particular concern with general principles and the way these may help to reshape one's perspective on a problem. He says that one of his guiding principles is "the scientist's motto 'Take nobody's word for it' (nullius in verba), a corollary of which is that if scientists as a whole denounce an idea this should not necessarily be taken as proof that the said idea is absurd: rather, one should examine carefully the alleged grounds for such opinions and judge how well these stand up to detailed scrutiny."
He is often attacked by dogmatic skeptics for taking an open-minded interest in telepathy and other unexplained phenomena (see for example David Deutsch, Nicholas Humphrey, James Randi).
Website: www.tcm.phy.cam.ac.uk/~bdj10/

Top of Page

Stanley Krippner, Ph.D.
Professor of psychology at Saybrook Graduate School, San Francisco. Formerly, he was director of the Kent State University Child Study Center, Kent OH, and the Maimonides Medical Center Dream Research Laboratory, Brooklyn NY. He is co-author of Extraordinary Dreams (SUNY, 2002) and co-editor of Varieties of Anomalous Experience: Examining the Scientific Evidence (APA, 2000) and The Psychological Impact of War on Civilians: An International Perspective (Greenwood, 2002). He holds faculty appointments at the Universidade Holistica Internacional (Brasilia) and the Instituto de Medicina y Tecnologia Avanzada de la Conducta (Ciudad Juarez). He has given invited addresses for the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Russian Academy of Pedagogical Sciences, and the School for Diplomatic Studies, Montevideo, Uruguay. He is a Fellow of the Society for the Scientific Study of Religion, and has published cross-cultural studies on spiritual content in dreams.
http://www.stanleykrippner.com
Books by Stanley Krippner

Top of Page

Edwin May, PhD
Internationally known for his work in parapsychology, he spent the first part of his research career in experimental nuclear physics. He first became involved in parapsychology in 1971 in psycho-kinesis research in the Physics Department at the University of California at Davis. Starting in 1974, he spent a year in India researching so-called psychic phenomena with yogis and other masters. In 1975 he worked with Charles Honorton at the Maimonides Medical Centre in Brooklyn, New York and began his formal career in parapsychology. In 1976 he joined the on-going US Government-sponsored work at SRI International (formally the Stanford Research Institute). In 1985 he became Programme Director of the Cognitive Sciences Programme, managing complex interdisciplinary research projects for the US Federal Government. He presided over 70% of the funding (more than $20m) and 85% of the data collection for the Government's 22-year involvement in parapsychological research. His association with this Government-sponsored parapsychology research ended in 1995 when the programme, called Star Gate, was closed. He is now the Executive Director of the Cognitive Sciences Laboratory, in the Laboratories for Fundamental Research. In 1997 he was President of the Parapsychological Association.
www.lfr.org

Top of Page

Robert Morris, Ph.D.
Prof. Morris has held the Koestler Chair of Parapsychology at Edinburgh University since December 1985. His specialist training was in Comparative Psychology, and his doctoral thesis was on "Factors affecting the maintenance of the pair bond in the Blond Ring Dove, Streptopelia risoria". He also received training in parapsychology from the Foundation for the Nature of Man in Durham, N. Carolina. Following this he did two years of postdoctoral research at Duke University Gerontology Center, folowed by full time posts at the Psychical Research Foundation in Durham N. Carolina, U. California at Santa Barbara, U. California at Irvine and Syracuse University, before coming to U. Edinburgh in 1985. During his time at Edinburgh he has had thirteen students complete PhD's. He has over 100 publications, some in Comparative Psychology and in Human Factors, but most in Parapsychology, including coauthorship of two books. His research interests have included animal social behaviour, human factors, the psychology of deception, volitional competence and performance enhancement, the psychology of anomalous experiences and various aspects of parapsychology. His current research activities involve supervision of, and collaboration in, roughly twenty projects in the last four of these areas.
Website: http://moebius.psy.ed.ac.uk

Top of Page

Roger Nelson, Ph.D.
His professional background is in experimental psychology and psychophysiology, supplemented by work in physics, statistical methods, and engineering (all grounded in a background of art and philosophy). He focused on extraordinary aspects of human consciousness in 1980, when he began coordinating research at the Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research (PEAR) laboratory at Princeton University. In 1998 Roger formed the Global Consciousness Project, an international collaboration of 75 researchers, colleagues, and friends from all walks of life, with the mission to collect continuous data of a kind that might allow detection of faint glimmerings of a noosphere, or global consciousness. The project is explained in depth, with access to data and results on the GCP website at :
http://noosphere.princeton.edu

Top of Page

Michael Persinger, Ph.D.
Director of the Behavioral Neuroscience Program at Laurentian University, and a psychologist specializing in Clinical Neuropsychology, Persinger has pursued methodology and multivariate (statistical) approaches. He elected to study the effects of magnetic fields because they are one of the few stimuli that evoke changes across all levels of scientific discourse. His work is reported in numerous technical papers and reports.
www.laurentian.ca/neurosci/persinger.html

Top of Page

Harold E. Puthoff, Ph.D.
President and CEO of EarthTech International, Inc., and Director of the Institute for Advanced Studies at Austin. His present research interests range from theoretical studies concerning gravitation, inertia, cosmology and energy research, to laboratory studies of innovative approaches to energy generation and space propulsion. Prior to that he was the Director and co-Founder (with Russell Targ) of the SRI program which studied extraordinary human functioning. While there he and Targ created the basic Remote Viewing protocol that is in worldwide use today. Puthoff has co-authored two books on Remote Viewing, Mind Reach and Mind-at-Large.
www.earthtech.org/staff/puthoffbio.htm
www.earthtech.org/ias.htm

Top of Page

Dean Radin, Ph.D.
For the last 16 years Dean Radin has conducted experimental studies of parapsychological phenomena in universities and industry, including appointments at Princeton University, the University of Edinburgh, the University of Nevada, and SRI International at Stanford, CA. He was a past President of the Parapsychological Association. He is the author of an award-winning book, The Conscious Universe (Harper Collins,1997) and is the author or co-author of more than 175 journal articles and technical reports.
Website: www.boundaryinstitute.org/people.htm

Top of Page

Beverly Rubik, Ph.D.
Took a Ph.D. in biophysics from the University of California at Berkeley. Formerly an academic at traditional universities, Dr. Rubik founded in 1996 a nonprofit corporation, the Institute for Frontier Science, to conduct research on the frontiers of biophysics and medicine in a more productive and cost-effective way than the university setting. Her main research focus is on consciousness studies, spiritual healing, and energy medicine. She is author of over 50 papers and the book, Life at the Edge of Science, and editor of another book, The Interrelationship Between Mind and Matter. She was a member of the Advisory Council at the U.S. National Institutes of Health Office of Alternative Medicine (1992-1999), and chaired the NIH panel on bioelectromagnetics. She is presently an adjunct faculty member at California Institute for Human Science in Encinitas, California, and a core faculty member at the Graduate College of Union Institute and University in Cincinnati, Ohio.
Website: www.concentric.net/~explore

Top of Page

Marilyn Schlitz, Ph.D.
Marilyn Schlitz is Director of Research at the Institute of Noetic Sciences, and Senior Scientist at the Geraldine Rush Cancer Research Institute at the California Pacific Medical Centre. She was trained in medical anthropology and parapsychology research. She has published numerous articles on cross-cultural healing, consciousness studies, distant healing and other controversial areas of science. She has conducted research at Stanford University, the Institute of Parapsychology and the Mind/Science Foundation. She is also the leader of the Esalen research working group on Distant Healing Intentionality.
Website: www.noetic.org/ions/about/marilyn.asp

Top of Page

Gertrude Schmeidler, Ph.D.
Professor of Psychology (Emeritus) City University of New York. Schmeidler is the last living parent of modern parapsychology. She was part of the group of scientists who transformed the study of extraordinary human functioning from its subjectively judged adolescence into a discipline based on objective data collection and analysis. In part because of her, parapsychology utilizes double blind protocols more often than any other discipline. Her work in time cognition, psychological type, and the importance of emotions and human relationships to experiment success, laid the groundwork for all subsequent research, is reported in a lengthy list of technical papers and reports.

Top of Page

Helmut Schmidt, Ph.D.
Formerly senior scientist at the Mind Science Foundation. A physicist by training Schmidt's innovative work showing the possibility of affecting events in the past in a quantifiable way, and his research into the physics of consciousness have challenged our understanding of reality. He has also helped develop the instrumentation now used in the discipline, and is known particularly for his research into random number generators. Schmidt's experiments, reported in his lengthy list of technical papers and reports, are notable for their elegance and originality.

Top of Page

Gary Schwartz, Ph.D.
Professor of psychology, medicine, neurology, psychiatry and surgery at the University of Arizona and director of its Human Energy Systems Laboratory. After receiving his doctorate from Harvard University, he served as a professor of psychology and psychiatry at Yale University, director of the Yale Psychophysiology Center, and co-director of the Yale Behavioral Medicine Clinic. He has published more than four hundred scientific papers, edited eleven academic books, and is the co-author, with Linda G. Russek, Ph.D., of The Living Energy Universe. His most recent book is a highly controversial study of eveidence for life after death, based on a scientific investigation of communications through mediums, The Afterlife Experiments: Breakthrough Scientific Evidence of Life after Death.
Website: http://www.openmindsciences.com
Books by Gary Schwartz

Top of Page

Stephan A. Schwartz
Research Associate of the Cognitive Sciences Laboratory of the Laboratories for Fundamental Research, and previously founder and Research Director of the Mobius laboratory. Schwartz is part of the small group that founded modern Remote Viewing research, and the principal researcher studying the use of Remote Viewing in archaeology. In addition to numerous technical papers and reports he has written four books on the subject: The Secret Vaults of Time, The Alexandria Project, Mind Rover, and Through Time and Space. His submarine experiment using Remote Viewing helped determine that anomalous perception is not an electromagnetic phenomenon. He also conceived the original research that developed Associated/Associational Remote Viewing (ARV). Other areas of interest include research into creativity and Therapeutic Intent, including a continuation of the analysis of water exposed to therapeutic intent using spectroscopy that was begun by Grad.
www.stephanaschwartz.com
www.schwartzreport.net
Books by Stephan A. Schwartz

Top of Page

Rupert Sheldrake, Ph.D.
Rupert Sheldrake is a biologist and author of more than 60 technical papers. He studied natural sciences at Cambridge and philosophy at Harvard, where he was a Frank Knox Fellow. He took a Ph.D. in biochemistry at Cambridge, and was a Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge, where he was Director of Studies in biochemistry and cell biology. He was also a Research Fellow of the Royal Society. From 1974 to 1978 he was Principal Plant Physiologist at the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) in Hyderabad, India, where he worked on the physiology of tropical legume crops, and remained Consultant Physiologist until 1985. His books include A New Science of Life, The Presence of the Past, Seven Experiments that Could Change the World and Dogs that Know When Their Owners are Coming Home, and Other Unexplained Powers of Animals.
He is a Fellow of the Institute of Noetic Sciences, near San Francisco, and lives in London.
Website: http://www.sheldrake.org
Books by Rupert Sheldrake

Top of Page

James. P. Spottiswoode
Director of Research at the Cognitive Sciences Laboratory of the Laboratories for Fundamental Research, and President of James Spottiswoode and Associates. Spottiswoode's research confirmed the work of another pioneer, Michael Persinger, concerning geomagnetic field effects. Subsequently, pursuing that line of inquiry he discovered the little understood Local Sidereal Time Effect. Other studies include pioneering work in meta-analysis, work on entropy, and applications of Fuzzy Set Theory in Remote Viewing analysis. He is the author of numerous technical papers and reports.
www.jsasoc.com/
www.lfr.org/csl/index.shtml

Top of Page

Ian Stevenson, M.D.
Was Director, Division of Personality Studies and Carlson Professor of Psychiatry, both a part of the Department of Psychiatric Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia. He died in February 2007. He was the pre-eminent researcher in the study of reincarnation as well as being the leading scientist studying children who claim to remember previous lives. He also made important studies of telepathy, near-death experiences, apparitions ("death-bed visions"), the mind-brain problem, and the survival of human personality after death. Stevenson's books on his research include: Twenty Cases Suggestive of Reincarnation, Cases of the Reincarnation Type, Unlearned Language, Children Who Remember Previous Lives, Where Reincarnation and Biology Intersect, and Reincarnation and Biology (vol. I-II).
www.healthsystem.virginia.edu/internet/personalitystudies/
Stevenson's research... More information
The following links include brief discussions of his work. The Importance of Spontaneous Cases
Reincarnation Cases
ESP Experiences
Near-death Experiences
Mental Mediumship
Other Work Books by Ian Stevenson

Top of Page

Russell Targ
is a physicist and author who was a pioneer in the development of the laser, and cofounder of the Stanford Research Institute's investigation into psychic abilities in the 1970s and 1980s. He is co-author of Mind Reach: Scientists Look at Psychic Abilities and The Mind Race: Understanding and Using Psychic Abilities. Targ recently retired from Lockheed Martin as a senior staff scientist, where he developed laser technology for peaceful applications.
Website: http://www.espresearch.com
Books by Russell Targ

Top of Page

Charles T. Tart, Ph.D.
A member of the Core Faculty at the Institute of Transpersonal Psychology and Professor Emeritus of Psychology at UC Davis. He is internationally known for research with altered states, transpersonal psychology, and parapsychology. His 13 books include two classics, Altered States of Consciousness and Transpersonal Psychologies . Two recent books, Waking Up and Living the Mindful Life synthesized Buddhist, Sufi and Gurdjieffian mindfulness training ideas with modern psychology. His 1997 Body Mind Spirit: Exploring the Parapsychology of Spirituality, explores the scientific foundations of transpersonal psychology to show it is possible to be both a scientist and a spiritual seeker. His most recent book is Mind Science: Meditation Training for Practical People.
Website: www.paradigm-sys.com/cttart/
Books by Charles T. Tart

Top of Page


 


If you have any comments or suggestions on this website please email morphlist@aol.com
Copyright © The Association for Skeptical Investigations


 


Pioneering Investigators


Henry Bauer
William G. Braud
Stephen E. Braude
Dick Bierman
Brenda J. Dunne
Bernard Grad
Robert Jahn
Brian Josephson
Stanley Krippner
Edwin May
Robert Morris
Roger Nelson
Michael Persinger
Harold E. Puthoff
Dean Radin
Beverly Rubik
Marilyn Schlitz
Gertrude Schmeidler
Helmut Schmidt
Gary Schwartz
Stephan A. Schwartz
Rupert Sheldrake
James. P. Spottiswoode
Ian Stevenson
Russell Targ
Charles Tart